Immunohistochemistry in Cancer Research

May 28, 2020 11:21:51 AM / by Champions Oncology posted in immunohistochemistry

Plasmacytoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder – H&E Staining

 

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique that originates in the early twentieth century but continues to be a valuable method that forms the backbone of molecular pathology. IHC is used for histological examination of tissues and specifically detects the presence of a molecule, such as a tumor antigen. IHC uses antibody-based labeling in which the primary antibody detects the target of interest and the secondary antibody detects the primary antibody which is linked to a molecule for microscopic visualization. Many different secondary antibody labeling modalities exist, including fluorescence, enzyme-mediated reactions and colloidal gold, and different labels are suited to specific microscopy platforms. Consider these five aspects of IHC as you implement this technique in preclinical cancer research:

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Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Clinical Flow Cytometry

May 13, 2020 11:15:07 AM / by Champions Oncology posted in Flow Cytometry

Caner Cells

The field of oncology has been transformed by the approval and implementation of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Cancer cells can tamper with a variety of self-defense mechanisms, including upregulating expression of immune checkpoint molecules on cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, such as PD-1 and CTLA-4. Overexpression of these markers is associated with T cell exhaustion and allows for tumor cells to evade detection. Immune checkpoint inhibitors target these molecules, which restores immune surveillance and anti-tumor responses by T cells.

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ERK at Work: Targeting the ERK Pathway in Cancer

Apr 30, 2020 10:00:00 AM / by Champions Oncology posted in ERK pathway

Splitting cancer Cells

Signal transduction networks are essential to normal cell growth and function, but signaling abnormalities, such as those caused by spontaneous mutations in signaling components, are the leading causes of tumor growth. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway contributes to normal cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival, but components of the ERK pathway are upregulated in many tumor types, including those associated with melanoma, lung, colon and pancreatic cancer.

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Targeting DNA Damage in Cancer

Apr 15, 2020 11:18:28 AM / by Champions Oncology posted in DNA Damage

DNA Damage

DNA damage is one of the primary triggers of cancer development and has been linked to many types of cancers, including prostate, stomach, liver and skin cancers as well as leukemia. Within cells, the DNA sequence encodes all the instructions required for building proteins that are needed for cellular functions such as metabolism, replication, tissue and organ maintenance. The fidelity of the DNA sequence in a cell is maintained by multiple mechanisms but errors and mutations can occur, which sets off a chain of events that lead to tumor growth.

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Human Immune System (HIS) and Patient-Derived Xenograft (PDX) models

Feb 14, 2020 11:21:11 AM / by Champions Oncology

ImmunoGraft

Champions Oncology and others in the field working with patient derived xenografts (PDX) are developing and providing translationally relevant preclinical models to test therapeutic efficacy of IO agents as monotherapy or rational combinations in humanized mice engrafted with functional human immune system.

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